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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2871\margr3631\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2871\margrsxn3631\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li29\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx2275 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-14\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 78{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw6 THE STATE}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri32\sb227\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw12\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 and other penalties according to the nature of the \expndtw9 offence and the status of the parties concerned. Be\-\expndtw5 sides the counsellors \i (amdtyas \i0 or \i mantris\\ \i0 the king \expndtw3 governed through a host of officials, high and low, \i\expndtw-2 Mahdmdtras \i0 and \i Yuktas, \i0 assisted by spies \i (cdras\\ agents \expndtw-4 provocateurs, \i0 and other \i instrumenta imperil. \i0 The prin\-\expndtw2 cipal departments of state were those of \i (a) \i0 Espionage, \expndtw8 which kept a strict watch everywhere and on every\-\expndtw7 body; \i (b) \i0 Finance, in charge of income and expendi\-\expndtw11 ture; perhaps it also supervised stores, working of \expndtw2 mines, etc.; \i (t)- \i0 Military, to preserve internal peace and repel foreign invasions; \i (d] \i0 Police, meant to apprehend \expndtw3 criminals and maintain law and order; \i (e) \i0 Justice : it \expndtw4 dispensed justice and settled disputes.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li61\fi446\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Lastly, a few words may be said about the divisions \expndtw4 of the kingdom and local administration. The empire \i\expndtw0 (rastra) \i0 comprised \i desas \i0 or \i janapadas \i0 (regions or pro\-\expndtw3 vinces), sub-divided into \i visayas \i0 (divisions), \i nagaras \i0\expndtw10 (cities) or \i puras \i0 (towns), and \i gramas \i0 (villages). A \i\expndtw3 nagara \i0 or city was placed under such a high officer as \expndtw6 could inspire awe and confidence among citizens, and \expndtw3 he was ^ also given authority to deal with all matters \expndtw6 concerning urban life \i (Sarvdrtbacintakah)* \i0 A village \expndtw2 was under the \i Grdmika., \i0 who was by way of remunera\-\expndtw1 tion daily supplied by the villagers with all the essential \expndtw11 requisites of food, fuel, and drink (VII, 118). Over \expndtw5 him were officers of ten villages \i (DaSf), \i0 who got one \i\expndtw-1 teua \i0 of land (sufficient to be tilled by six pairs of oxen); \expndtw0 officers of twenty villages ( \i Vimsatesa \i0 or \i Vimsi\\ \i0 assigned \i\scaps\expndtw118 c-jl,'\expndtw0  \i0\scaps0\super\expndtw-3 officers\nosupersub  \super of\nosupersub  \super a\nosupersub  hundred villages \i (Satesa \i0 or \i\expndtw3\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'b1\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 atadhyaksa\\ \i0 allowed to have one village for their \expndtw-1 maintenance; and officers of a thousand villages \i (SabaS-\expndtw9 rapah\\ \i0 remunerated with the revenues of a town.*}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li486\fi0\ri0\sb256\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1\nosupersub  \i Manusmriti, \i0 VII, m.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li886\fi0\ri0\sb43\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 -\super >\nosupersub  \super VH\nosupersub > \super IIJ\nosupersub > \super II8\nosupersub > "9-   Visnu omits the lord of twenty}\par }